Thursday, January 23, 2020

The Life of a Star Essay -- essays research papers

The Life of a Star One night while little Jimmy was out camping with his father, he asked his father how a star is made? And his father said there are high-mass stars, intermediate-mass stars, and low-mass stars. The life cycles of stars follow three general patterns each associated with a range of initial mass. Much like human beings stars have a life cycle, they go threw birth, evolution, and death. And little Jimmy said how is that possible? First the star must be born. Many astronomers believe that a star is formed when large compression waves traveling through gas clouds create dense knots of gas is the cloud. The gravity of these knots then pules the other gas molecules. As the knot grows larger and larger the gravity starts attracting more and more gas molecules. Eventually, the knot coalesces into a growing sphere of compressed gas that reaches internal temperatures of a few million degrees Celsius. At this point the gases in the knot’s interior become so hot that their atomic nuclei begin fusing, creating large amounts of nuclear energy and forming a new star. Pressure from the radiation of new stars in turn causes more, higher-density zones to form in the gas cloud, which initiates the birth of more stars. Next the evolution and main sequence of a star, as it’s going through puberty. In its earliest stage, a typical star is large and emits infrared light. Within a million years, the gravitational attraction of the star’s material for itself causes the star to ...

Wednesday, January 15, 2020

Child Development

Abstract Preschool students who are entering kindergarten are often expected to attend a screening session. My research focused on the qualities of a successful screening tool and how the tool is used to assist educators. I was curious to know if a screening tool provided enough information for educators to adequately balance classes during the process of placing incoming kindergarteners. Placing students based on their academic and social needs gives teachers more time and opportunities to successfully teach to their students' strengths, challenges, and personalities. Finally, I was interested in researching which screening tools educators chose to use. Throughout my research I wanted to determine which areas of development were typically part of the preferred screening tools and to determine which areas were better predictors of academic achievement. Running head: BENEFITS OF SCREENING INCOMING KINDERGARTEN STUDENTS 3Statement of IssueKindergarten screening is used to determine which students are at risk for developmental, behavioral, or academic difficulties. A kindergarten screening tool is designed to identify potential learning or behavioral difficulties before they increase in frequency, intensity, or duration after the student enters school. Students who are identified can receive support from their school and families in a more timely and effective manner. The screening data also provides information that assists in the process of student placement into kindergarten classrooms.Literature ReviewSchool readiness, defined as social, emotional, and behavioral readiness to learn is a fundamental aspect of school success. Screening students who are entering kindergarten can be beneficial in identifying which students are demonstrating school readiness and which students would benefit from additional support once they begin kindergarten. Determining whether or not to require incoming kindergarteners to participate in a screening session is a discussion between the kindergarten teachers, administration of the elementary school, guidance counselor, and curriculum coordinator. The purpose may extend beyond the placement of students to include comparative data gathered to use in future discussions related to the students' progress.It is necessary to recognize the difference between the terms assessment and screening. While many people use these terms interchangeably, they have different purposes. Given the growth in the use of screening and assessment practices to identify students at increased levels of risk, it is important to emphasize important distinctions between screening and assessment. Running head: BENEFITS OF SCREENING INCOMING KINDERGARTEN STUDENTS 4Specifically, screening and assessment procedures differ in their purposes, features, and the types of tools used. School readiness screening measures would be administered to every child entering kindergarten. Stormant (2016) suggests that a true screening system should be brief, simple, and rely on easy to administer tools. The purpose of assessment is to conduct a lengthy, in-depth, and thorough investigation. Invernizzi (2010) discusses the criteria for early literacy assessment in preschoolers assessment decisions. They must be broad-based, easy and efficient to administer and interpret, and provide immediate instructional benefits to teachers. Along with deciding whether or not to participate, educators must choose which tool to use and what developmental areas to focus on. Educators can then create balanced classrooms and prepare supports for the students who showed a lack of school readiness based on the outcomes. Steps can be taken to prepare these students for their entrance into kindergarten by providing summer programs and planning for ways of implementing instruction that offers extra support at the start of the school year for students who need it. RTI is a method of providing Tiered support for struggling students. Kindergarten screening results can provide educators with a starting point of data. Interestingly, Seethaler (2010) advises that screening students who haven't been exposed to math concepts prior to attending school may give false information. She questioned that waiting until students have more time to be exposed to common math experiences might allow the students without prior exposure to number concepts time to ‘catch up' to their peers. In her research she also examined the single skill screener versus multiple skills screeners to determine potential mathematics difficulty in kindergarten students. Phonological Awareness is known to be a predictor of academic success in Literacy where Number Sense is a predictor of math success.   Bridges and Catts (2011) report that specifically, Running head: BENEFITS OF SCREENING INCOMING KINDERGARTEN STUDENTS 5dynamic screening may be able to reduce the false positives associated with universal screening in the early school grades. Although preschool opportunities provide many children with literacy experience and instruction, a large number of children continue to enter kindergarten with limited literacy knowledge. A lack of literacy knowledge at the beginning of kindergarten can affect performance on measures of phonological awareness and lead to children being identified as at risk for reading difficulties.The kindergarten screening process is a way to gauge a child's current functioning and growth. It is a brief evaluation of several developmental domains of functioning in young children that typically takes place prior to the beginning of kindergarten. It can be an important prevention or early intervention tool to determine which young children are at risk for developmental, behavioral, or academic difficulties. The areas of development that are most commonly evaluated during a screening are; Gross Motor, Fine Motor, Language, Concepts (Math, Phonological Awareness), Self-help Development, Social/Emotional Development, and Behavior.Conoyer (2016) advises when selecting screening tools, educational professionals must balance efficiency relative to predictive utility and diagnostic feedback. While some may opt for a multi-skill measure with a longer administration time, others may prefer a brief screener that has sufficient predictive utility, and then administer diagnostic assessments to the smaller group of students identified in the initial screen.PALS-PreK is a scientifically-based phonological awareness and literacy screening that measures preschoolers' developing knowledge of important literacy fundamentals. The assessment reflects skills that are predictive of future reading success. It measures name writing, Running head: BENEFITS OF SCREENING INCOMING KINDERGARTEN STUDENTS 6beginning sound awareness, print and word awareness, rhyme and nursery rhyme awareness, and alphabet knowledge. Phonological awareness refers to the ability to pay attention to, identify, and manipulate sound units within spoken words.As stated by McWayne (2011), the K-ABR is a teacher rating screener that includes three items to screen children in need of academic and/or behavior support. The specific items comprising the K-ABR include (1) â€Å"Compared to other students in this school, how was this child's readiness for the behavioral expectations of kindergarten,† (2) â€Å"Compared to other students in this school, how was this child's academic readiness for kindergarten,† and (3) â€Å"Compared to other students in this school, how was this child's overall readiness for kindergarten. â€Å"Kokkalia (2017) explains that the DIAL–4 is an appropriate screening tool for children ages 2.6 years to 5.11 years. The tool is individually administered but is appropriate for use in environments where large kindergarten screenings occur, taking approximately 25-35 minutes per child to administer. Each of five performance areas is scored on a behavior (psychological and social) rating scale. Behaviors are observed during the screening process to help determine if further assessment is needed. This tool offers comprehensive information in five performance areas; Gross Motor, Fine Motor, Language, Concepts, Self-help Development, Social Development. This is the tool that my school district has chosen to implement this year for the first time.Hamm (2014) describes a program called KidSkills whose goal is to meet the principles of RTI and illustrate the effectiveness of elementary teachers and specialists teaming up to systematically examine student needs. Collaborative models such as this one aim to support Running head: BENEFITS OF SCREENING INCOMING KINDERGARTEN STUDENTS 7student achievement. Multiple perspectives from various areas of expertise offer strategies that collectively support the whole child. Early screening, systematic data collection, collaboration, and a strong home- school partnership are key components of this program that can be replicated in a variety of settings and possibly generalized to other academic areas. The program provides kindergarten students with targeted small-group instruction once a week focusing on phonemic awareness, language and vocabulary development, literacy skills, and fine motor and perceptual skills.ConclusionThe methods used to perform kindergarten screenings are often in question. Educators discuss if preschool students are capable of accurately sharing what they know with individuals they have just met in a school setting that may cause anxiety in some children. Early Childhood educators may disagree with some of the developmental areas on the screening tools. Teachers may assume that children come to kindergarten with the prerequisite fine motor and perceptual skills to practice letter formation. Kindergarten screening tools may not pick up on the subtle needs experienced by some children that will make letter formation difficult. Assessing and addressing visual–motor skills is an essential predictor of academic achievement. As stated by Conoyer (2016), early identification of students at risk in mathematics is limited in value if educators are unable to evaluate and adjust their instructional programs to effect improved mathematics achievement.Further research to explore how the information gathered during kindergarten screeners should be examined and compared to future student assessments. Academic predictors could be evaluated in more detail and more data should be gathered in order to follow student progress Running head: BENEFITS OF SCREENING INCOMING KINDERGARTEN STUDENTS 8throughout the elementary years. Continuing to check in with classroom teachers to find out if the classes ended up being successfully ‘balanced' would be of interest to my research of kindergarten screening usefulness. Each year students enter kindergarten with varying levels of maturity, attention, and exposure to academic concepts. Acknowledging this and proceeding without biases when examining the data collected is essential to the child's future school career. Child Development There are many different aspects that Influence and shape human development. One major factor that Influences personal development Is the social environment. A lot of people don't realize how many different aspects go Into shaping how a person develops while growing up. According to Rule Frontbencher, there are 5 mall systems that Influence human development: the Microsystems, Microsystems, ecosystem, Microsystems and chronometers. One system that influences the person directly is the Microsystems. According to Earnest (20111 â€Å"The Microsystems isBrotherliness's term for the immediate environment, the settings where people experience their daily lives † (p. 23). The Microsystems includes: family, school, peers, neighborhood, church group and health services. My family has one of the largest impacts on my development. When I was six years old, my parents got a divorce. Even though I was only six, it profoundly affected me, even to this day. While growing up, it took an emot ional toll on me, from not being able to celebrate holidays together, to switching from house to house on the weekends.My dad moved on very fast and married when I was 8 years old; to this day I resent my stepmother for that very reason, therefore, becoming much closer to my mother. My mom Is a very Independent person and has never relied on a guy for anything. I look up to her for everything, and since she is my role model, I am now a very independent person by not relying on other people, being able to get stuff done on my own and being strong in difficult situations. The peers I grew up with also had a vast impact on my life and decisions.When I was in elementary school, some of the boys would make fun of my SSE by sticking pencils at the end of their nose and saying it looked like mine. I would cry myself to sleep and started to hate my nose. When I was in Junior high, I still got negative comments regarding my nose. I became embarrassed to meet new people, thinking they would J udge me and think I was ugly so I didn't go out as much. Just last year, I got a royalists procedure done to reduce the size of my nose. If I had never gotten correlated for the nose I was given, I don't think I would have gotten the procedure done.Another system In Frontbenchers ecological theory Is the crossest. Unlike the Microsystems, the Microsystems influences the person indirectly. According to Earnest (2011 â€Å"The Microsystems is the broad system of cultural beliefs and values, and the economic and governmental systems that are built on those beliefs and values† (p. 23). The Microsystems is the largest system and includes: the government, cultural values, customs, religion, and the economy. One aspect of the Microsystems, which influenced my development significantly, was the socio-economic status of my family.I was raised by two parents who each went to allege and got a bachelors degree. My mother completed her associates degree, had her first child and then went to night school to complete her bachelor's degree. That showed me how crucial getting an education was. The socio-economic status of my family Instilled In me a great respect for education, which Is why I am striving to get a masters degree In psychology. After my mother achieved her bachelor's degree, she advanced in her job to become a human resources manager earning over grow up, therefore, leading me to pursue the field of psychology.The culture of the Unites States has an enormous impact on me as I grew up. Ever since I was a young girl, the United States has given me a strong exposure to the value of independence. Personal freedom, independence, and responsibility are what our society strives for in individuals. Since that was instilled in me as a child, growing up, I always took the initiative to try and figure out answers before asking someone, getting all of my work done promptly and on time, and leading a life deciding on what my future was going to be.Kids are constantly asked what they want to be when they grow up; that shows he value of independence and how anyone can choose what life they want to live. It is then up to the child, to obtain that goal by having responsibilities and going for what they believe in. Since children are raised to have responsibilities, if a 6th grader came home with a poor report card, actions would be taken place. My family would set up tutoring in the subject they are struggling in, since academics are so important for succeeding in life. If the 6th graders academics never improved, he might flunk out of school, therefore, not being able to get a degree.If he never got a degree he would not get a well paying Job, therefore, not being able to support himself/family. Since culture has such a big impact on development, depending on where one lives, there would be traditions and practices around the birth of a baby. If I were to have a child, my family would throw me a baby shower and give me gifts to help me raise the ba by. On the day I go into labor, my family would also come to the hospital to help support me and be there to witness the birth of my baby. I would have my husband and mother in the room to support me and share the experience with me. Child Development Child development is the process of how your child is able to do complex things as he gets older. Development involves learning skills such as tying shoes, skipping, kicking a ball and walking. Children develop their skills in five main areas: * Physical Development * Intellectual/Cognitive Development * Language Development * Emotional Development * Social Development Physical Development Physical development is the way in which children's bodies increase in skills. The acquisition of skills such as sitting, throwing and running, picking up objects and feeding describes the physical development of your child.Developmental norms are patterns of growth that a child is expected to follow when growing. (Bruce T. Meggitt, C 2004) Physical development is grouped in two main areas: Gross Motor Skill are his/her ability to use their large muscles, Gross Motor Skills starts with head control and works down their body such as learning to sit, crawl, pull up and walk. They use their large musc les to acquire these skills. Fine Motor Skills are his/her ability to use their small muscles. During the first year of your child’s life, he/she will start to practice handling and manipulating small objects.This develops their ability to use their small muscles, specifically their hands and fingers to pick up and hold objects such as pencil and spoon. (Bruce T. Meggitt, C 2004) Intellectual/cognitive development Cognitive development is the way in which your child manages their thinking, and talent to create sense of the world and what is occurring around them. When your child is able to deal with difficulties, telling about it in advance are examples of skills associated with cognitive child development. (Robinson, M et al, 1998) Language development:Children's language develops through using visual and sound stimuli, especially in the acquisition of language, also in the exchange of thoughts and feelings. There are two identifiable stages; the first stage of development i n the process of children learning to use language is the pre-linguistic stage. Babies use this stage to learn how to communicate with others. During the first stage of life, babies rapidly learn how to communicate with their carers, so that by the age of 12 months, most babies understand what is being said to them and are starting to communicate their needs by pointing or by showing their carer objects.Then there is the Linguistic Stage – 15 Months to 8 Years, Children starts to use words around twelve months and by fifteen months they have developed their own word for an object or person and use it consistently. They then go on to use holophrases – using a single word to express several meanings by changing the sound and using gestures. As they grow children gradually put two words together to form a mini-sentence if your child is exposed to a rich language environment, this will be reflected in his speech development. (Robinson, M et al, 1998) Emotional development: Emotional development is the growth of a child's ability to feel and express an increasing range of emotions appropriately. Children's emotional capabilities expand, allowing them to develop a variety of skills that they will need in their adult lives. Emotional development encompasses the feelings that we have about ourselves and others, as well as our capabilities to function well in the world from a social standpoint. (Robinson, M et al, 1998) Social development: Social development is the growth of a child's ability to relate to others and become independent.As they develop and perceive their own individuality within their community, they also gain skills to communicate with other people and process their actions. Social development most often refers to how a child develops friendships and other relationships, also how well a child handles conflict with peers. (Bruce T. Meggitt, C 2004) This is not fixed or written in stone it is simply a guide to child development, It is dangero us to assume that children are abnormal if they do not all progress in exactly the same manner. Variations will always exist, since each child is an individual developing in their own unique way. (Bruce T.Meggitt, C 2004) The significance of social and emotional development is seen in every area of a child's life. A child will have a strong foundation for later development if he/she can manage personal feelings, understand others’ feelings and needs, and interact positively with others. Differences in social and emotional development result from a child’s inborn temperament, cultural influences, disabilities, behaviours modelled by adults, the level of security felt in a child’s relationships with adults, and the opportunities provided for social interaction. (raisingchildren. net. u/preschoolers/preschoolers, 2006) Social and emotional development for a four year old: Your four-year-old should be able to learn lots about the world and how it works, about peopl e and relationships, makes friends (often short-term) and plays group games. They are now more likely to, share toys, taking turns with assistance and initiate or join in play with other children and make up games. (/raisingchildren. net. au/preschoolers/preschoolers, 2006) At this age, children are more aware of themselves as individuals. They should show some understanding of moral reasoning (exploring ideas about fairness and good or bad behaviour).Children become more interested in relationships with other children and start to compare themselves with others. Children should start to develop friendships, express more awareness of other people's feelings, show interest in exploring sex differences and most children enjoy imaginative play with other children, like dress up or house, they bring dramatic play closer to reality by paying attention to detail, time, and space. (raisingchildren. net. au/preschoolers/preschoolers, 2006) Children know a bit more about the idea of sharing. But they might not be keen to put the idea of sharing into action, it would be great if children always played nicely together and never had fights over toys or over whose turn it is to lick the bowl after the cake has been baked. If a child is not sharing you can encourage them to share with other children, by reminding them how bad they would feel if someone took their toy. Talking to children about other children’s feelings, helps build their sense of empathy. Children need structures and routines to feel safe, and  when their behaviour is ‘over the top’, they need you to set limits and bring them back to earth without making them feel bad. Raising children. net. au/preschoolers/preschoolers, 2006). Factors affecting child development There are various factors that may impact upon the development of the child, learning difficulties such as Autism, ADD/ ADHD disorder are a condition where children have difficulty concentrating and paying attention and may cau se slowness in development in many areas. Children with learning difficulties or special needs will require additional help such as extra support at school/home, to resolve development problem and may or may not catch up. These children may even go through a process called statementing before they receive help.Some children with learning problems do not get statemented as the parents may not want to admit that their child has a problem as they feel ashamed. Children with special needs can benefit greatly if attending a mainstream school that has the resources and funding to help them. (Browne. K. 2008. P. 360) Factors such as extreme poverty and emotional stress can have a devastating effect on children’s development. Poverty can have a profound effect on a child’s development; children who come from poor backgrounds will lack resources, live in over-crowded houses with lack of study space.Their poor diet and ill health can lead to tiredness, absences and missed lesson s. Low income or unemployment may mean lack of educational resources or a home computer is not available. This could affect the child’s educational progress. It could also mean the hidden costs of education such as calculators, sports equipment, and school trips are out of reach of many poorer families. Although many government places are available many low income families in lesser paid jobs cannot afford to send their children to pre-school or nursery. Such starts to education are proven to aid a child’s development and can help with social skills.It can be argued that Material Deprivation also affects the working class. (Browne. K. 2008. P. 360) It can also be argued that although children lack educational resources at home such as computers and calculators they can still achieve developmental levels as many school are well equipped with these materials, also many schools now have breakfast/afterschool clubs and do lots of extra curriculum studies to help children. It can be said children will only benefit from these clubs and extra studies if parent are willing to encourage children to attend them.Many things can cause emotional trauma in children such as death, illness, unstable home life, abuse, neglect, bullying and accidents. Children suffering from emotional trauma can exhibit displays of aggression, withdrawal, show signs of anxiety and have complaints of aches, pains and tiredness. Emotional trauma can leave children feeling frightened and even ashamed or guilty. All these signs and symptoms can cause developmental problems and impact upon their emotional ability which is important to a Childs personal and social growth, a child suffering from trauma may also revert to bed wetting or baby talk.Children who are affected by extreme trauma can benefit greatly with the help of the Schools mentors/councilors who are trained to deal with traumatized children, a teacher with a heightened sense of awareness maybe able to pick up on any problem s. (Marcus, M. Ducklin, A 1998) An inside school factor that can cause developmental progress is labeling, teachers’ judge and label pupils based on a number of different factors such as social class, gender, race, and behaviour rather than on ability and intelligence.Pupils who have reputations and labels because of their behaviour and attitudes are unlikely to be innocent victims; they may have been in trouble before. It can be argued that it is often the case pupils will contest their label and work doubly hard to prove that they can do what they are told they cannot, therefore rendering the label useless, (McNeill, Blundell et al, 2003 Methods to manage behaviour In the classroom environment a teacher who is applying a behaviourist view would typically stand at the front of the class and direct how the lesson takes place and how the class responds to the stimulus provided.It can be argued that the behaviourist approach does not allow for individuality or for spontaneity, it ignores people’s ability to have complex thought processes. It could be argued that the reward giver would need to know the learner to know what the correct reinforcement would be to ensure effective reinforcement. A negative factor would be too much adult involvement. (McNeill, Blundell et al, 2003) A positive classroom environment is one where the teacher adopts the cognitive style of learning.The teacher allows more class involvement and often sits amongst the class rather than standing at the front. The lessons would have a more adaptable framework which allows students to be more independent, the student would be able to set their own targets /goals thus creating independent learning and thinking. The lessons would include role play, presentation discussions, group work, research and working in pairs. The teacher would empower her students to self learn so rather than being a role model would become a facilitator. McNeill, Blundell et al, 2003) Other methods of managi ng behaviour are rewards and sanctions, teacher can rewards children for good behaviour or finishing their work with verbal praise, stars, certificates or table points. Teachers may also give children sanction such as a time out or losing five minutes of playtime. When dishing out sanctions/reward the teacher must be consistent and they have to be relevant and meaningful to the child, it could be argued that to ensure the effectiveness of reinforcers the teacher would need to know the learner. Word Count 1998 BibliographyBROWNE, K. (2008). Sociology. 3rd Ed, Cambridge: polity press. BRUCE, T, MEGGITT, C (2006) Childcare and Education, 3rd Ed, London: Hodder ; Stoughton. MARCUS, M, DUCKLIN, A. (1998) Success in Sociology London John Murray MCNEILL, P. BLUNDELL, J. GRIFFITHS, J. (2003). Sociology. The complete companion. 3rd Ed, Cheltenham: Nelson Thorne. ROBINSON, M. BEITH, K. PULLIN, L. (1998) Early Years Care and Education, 2nd Ed, Oxford: Heinemann. www. childdevelopmentinfo. com/ – updated 26th June 2007-accessed 5th June 2010 http://raisingchildren. net. au/preschoolers/preschoolers. html | Child Development Child development is the process of how your child is able to do complex things as he gets older. Development involves learning skills such as tying shoes, skipping, kicking a ball and walking. Children develop their skills in five main areas: * Physical Development * Intellectual/Cognitive Development * Language Development * Emotional Development * Social Development Physical Development Physical development is the way in which children's bodies increase in skills. The acquisition of skills such as sitting, throwing and running, picking up objects and feeding describes the physical development of your child.Developmental norms are patterns of growth that a child is expected to follow when growing. (Bruce T. Meggitt, C 2004) Physical development is grouped in two main areas: Gross Motor Skill are his/her ability to use their large muscles, Gross Motor Skills starts with head control and works down their body such as learning to sit, crawl, pull up and walk. They use their large musc les to acquire these skills. Fine Motor Skills are his/her ability to use their small muscles. During the first year of your child’s life, he/she will start to practice handling and manipulating small objects.This develops their ability to use their small muscles, specifically their hands and fingers to pick up and hold objects such as pencil and spoon. (Bruce T. Meggitt, C 2004) Intellectual/cognitive development Cognitive development is the way in which your child manages their thinking, and talent to create sense of the world and what is occurring around them. When your child is able to deal with difficulties, telling about it in advance are examples of skills associated with cognitive child development. (Robinson, M et al, 1998) Language development:Children's language develops through using visual and sound stimuli, especially in the acquisition of language, also in the exchange of thoughts and feelings. There are two identifiable stages; the first stage of development i n the process of children learning to use language is the pre-linguistic stage. Babies use this stage to learn how to communicate with others. During the first stage of life, babies rapidly learn how to communicate with their carers, so that by the age of 12 months, most babies understand what is being said to them and are starting to communicate their needs by pointing or by showing their carer objects.Then there is the Linguistic Stage – 15 Months to 8 Years, Children starts to use words around twelve months and by fifteen months they have developed their own word for an object or person and use it consistently. They then go on to use holophrases – using a single word to express several meanings by changing the sound and using gestures. As they grow children gradually put two words together to form a mini-sentence if your child is exposed to a rich language environment, this will be reflected in his speech development. (Robinson, M et al, 1998) Emotional development: Emotional development is the growth of a child's ability to feel and express an increasing range of emotions appropriately. Children's emotional capabilities expand, allowing them to develop a variety of skills that they will need in their adult lives. Emotional development encompasses the feelings that we have about ourselves and others, as well as our capabilities to function well in the world from a social standpoint. (Robinson, M et al, 1998) Social development: Social development is the growth of a child's ability to relate to others and become independent.As they develop and perceive their own individuality within their community, they also gain skills to communicate with other people and process their actions. Social development most often refers to how a child develops friendships and other relationships, also how well a child handles conflict with peers. (Bruce T. Meggitt, C 2004) This is not fixed or written in stone it is simply a guide to child development, It is dangero us to assume that children are abnormal if they do not all progress in exactly the same manner. Variations will always exist, since each child is an individual developing in their own unique way. (Bruce T.Meggitt, C 2004) The significance of social and emotional development is seen in every area of a child's life. A child will have a strong foundation for later development if he/she can manage personal feelings, understand others’ feelings and needs, and interact positively with others. Differences in social and emotional development result from a child’s inborn temperament, cultural influences, disabilities, behaviours modelled by adults, the level of security felt in a child’s relationships with adults, and the opportunities provided for social interaction. (raisingchildren. net. u/preschoolers/preschoolers, 2006) Social and emotional development for a four year old: Your four-year-old should be able to learn lots about the world and how it works, about peopl e and relationships, makes friends (often short-term) and plays group games. They are now more likely to, share toys, taking turns with assistance and initiate or join in play with other children and make up games. (/raisingchildren. net. au/preschoolers/preschoolers, 2006) At this age, children are more aware of themselves as individuals. They should show some understanding of moral reasoning (exploring ideas about fairness and good or bad behaviour).Children become more interested in relationships with other children and start to compare themselves with others. Children should start to develop friendships, express more awareness of other people's feelings, show interest in exploring sex differences and most children enjoy imaginative play with other children, like dress up or house, they bring dramatic play closer to reality by paying attention to detail, time, and space. (raisingchildren. net. au/preschoolers/preschoolers, 2006) Children know a bit more about the idea of sharing. But they might not be keen to put the idea of sharing into action, it would be great if children always played nicely together and never had fights over toys or over whose turn it is to lick the bowl after the cake has been baked. If a child is not sharing you can encourage them to share with other children, by reminding them how bad they would feel if someone took their toy. Talking to children about other children’s feelings, helps build their sense of empathy. Children need structures and routines to feel safe, and  when their behaviour is ‘over the top’, they need you to set limits and bring them back to earth without making them feel bad. Raising children. net. au/preschoolers/preschoolers, 2006). Factors affecting child development There are various factors that may impact upon the development of the child, learning difficulties such as Autism, ADD/ ADHD disorder are a condition where children have difficulty concentrating and paying attention and may cau se slowness in development in many areas. Children with learning difficulties or special needs will require additional help such as extra support at school/home, to resolve development problem and may or may not catch up. These children may even go through a process called statementing before they receive help.Some children with learning problems do not get statemented as the parents may not want to admit that their child has a problem as they feel ashamed. Children with special needs can benefit greatly if attending a mainstream school that has the resources and funding to help them. (Browne. K. 2008. P. 360) Factors such as extreme poverty and emotional stress can have a devastating effect on children’s development. Poverty can have a profound effect on a child’s development; children who come from poor backgrounds will lack resources, live in over-crowded houses with lack of study space.Their poor diet and ill health can lead to tiredness, absences and missed lesson s. Low income or unemployment may mean lack of educational resources or a home computer is not available. This could affect the child’s educational progress. It could also mean the hidden costs of education such as calculators, sports equipment, and school trips are out of reach of many poorer families. Although many government places are available many low income families in lesser paid jobs cannot afford to send their children to pre-school or nursery. Such starts to education are proven to aid a child’s development and can help with social skills.It can be argued that Material Deprivation also affects the working class. (Browne. K. 2008. P. 360) It can also be argued that although children lack educational resources at home such as computers and calculators they can still achieve developmental levels as many school are well equipped with these materials, also many schools now have breakfast/afterschool clubs and do lots of extra curriculum studies to help children. It can be said children will only benefit from these clubs and extra studies if parent are willing to encourage children to attend them.Many things can cause emotional trauma in children such as death, illness, unstable home life, abuse, neglect, bullying and accidents. Children suffering from emotional trauma can exhibit displays of aggression, withdrawal, show signs of anxiety and have complaints of aches, pains and tiredness. Emotional trauma can leave children feeling frightened and even ashamed or guilty. All these signs and symptoms can cause developmental problems and impact upon their emotional ability which is important to a Childs personal and social growth, a child suffering from trauma may also revert to bed wetting or baby talk.Children who are affected by extreme trauma can benefit greatly with the help of the Schools mentors/councilors who are trained to deal with traumatized children, a teacher with a heightened sense of awareness maybe able to pick up on any problem s. (Marcus, M. Ducklin, A 1998) An inside school factor that can cause developmental progress is labeling, teachers’ judge and label pupils based on a number of different factors such as social class, gender, race, and behaviour rather than on ability and intelligence.Pupils who have reputations and labels because of their behaviour and attitudes are unlikely to be innocent victims; they may have been in trouble before. It can be argued that it is often the case pupils will contest their label and work doubly hard to prove that they can do what they are told they cannot, therefore rendering the label useless, (McNeill, Blundell et al, 2003 Methods to manage behaviour In the classroom environment a teacher who is applying a behaviourist view would typically stand at the front of the class and direct how the lesson takes place and how the class responds to the stimulus provided.It can be argued that the behaviourist approach does not allow for individuality or for spontaneity, it ignores people’s ability to have complex thought processes. It could be argued that the reward giver would need to know the learner to know what the correct reinforcement would be to ensure effective reinforcement. A negative factor would be too much adult involvement. (McNeill, Blundell et al, 2003) A positive classroom environment is one where the teacher adopts the cognitive style of learning.The teacher allows more class involvement and often sits amongst the class rather than standing at the front. The lessons would have a more adaptable framework which allows students to be more independent, the student would be able to set their own targets /goals thus creating independent learning and thinking. The lessons would include role play, presentation discussions, group work, research and working in pairs. The teacher would empower her students to self learn so rather than being a role model would become a facilitator. McNeill, Blundell et al, 2003) Other methods of managi ng behaviour are rewards and sanctions, teacher can rewards children for good behaviour or finishing their work with verbal praise, stars, certificates or table points. Teachers may also give children sanction such as a time out or losing five minutes of playtime. When dishing out sanctions/reward the teacher must be consistent and they have to be relevant and meaningful to the child, it could be argued that to ensure the effectiveness of reinforcers the teacher would need to know the learner. Word Count 1998 BibliographyBROWNE, K. (2008). Sociology. 3rd Ed, Cambridge: polity press. BRUCE, T, MEGGITT, C (2006) Childcare and Education, 3rd Ed, London: Hodder ; Stoughton. MARCUS, M, DUCKLIN, A. (1998) Success in Sociology London John Murray MCNEILL, P. BLUNDELL, J. GRIFFITHS, J. (2003). Sociology. The complete companion. 3rd Ed, Cheltenham: Nelson Thorne. ROBINSON, M. BEITH, K. PULLIN, L. (1998) Early Years Care and Education, 2nd Ed, Oxford: Heinemann. www. childdevelopmentinfo. com/ – updated 26th June 2007-accessed 5th June 2010 http://raisingchildren. net. au/preschoolers/preschoolers. html |

Tuesday, January 7, 2020

Biography of Tamerlane, 14th Conqueror of Asia

Tamerlane (April 8, 1336–February 18, 1405) was the ferocious and terrifying founder of the Timurid empire of Central Asia, eventually ruling much of Europe and Asia. Throughout history, few names have inspired such terror as his. Tamerlane was not the conquerors actual name, though. More properly, he is known as Timur, from the Turkic word for iron. Fast Facts: Tamerlane or Timur Known For: Founder of the Timurid Empire (1370–1405), ruled from Russia to India, and from the Mediterranean Sea to Mongolia.Birth: April 8, 1336 in Kesh, Transoxiana (present-day Uzbekistan)Parents: Taraghai Bahdur and Tegina BegimDied: February 18, 1405 at Otrar, in KazakhstanSpouse(s): Aljai Turkanaga (m. about 1356, d. 1370), Saray Mulk (m. 1370), dozens of other wives and concubinesChildren: Timur had dozens of children, those who ruled his empire after his death include Pir Muhammad Jahangir (1374–1407, ruled 1405–1407), Shahrukh Mirza (1377–1447, r. 1407–1447), and Ulegh Beg (1393–1449, r. 1447–1449). Amir Timur is remembered as a vicious conqueror, who razed ancient cities to the ground and put entire populations to the sword. On the other hand, he is also known as a great patron of the arts, literature, and architecture. One of his signature achievements is his capital in the city of Samarkand, located in modern-day Uzbekistan. A complicated man, Timur continues to fascinate us some six centuries after his death. Early Life Timur was born on April 8, 1336, near the city of Kesh (now called Shahrisabz), about 50 miles south of the oasis of Samarkand, in Transoxiana.  The childs father Taraghai Bahdur was the chief of the Barlas tribe; Timurs mother was Tegina Begim. The Barlas were of mixed Mongolian and Turkic ancestry, descended from the hordes of Genghis Khan and the earlier inhabitants of Transoxiana. Unlike their nomadic ancestors, the Barlas were settled agriculturalists and traders. Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn Arabshahs 14th-century biography, Tamerlane or Timur: The Great Amir, states that Timur was descended from Genghis Khan on his mothers side; it is not entirely clear whether that is true. Many of the details of Tamerlanes early life are from a spate of manuscripts, dozens of heroic tales written from the early 18th through 20th centuries, and stored in archives across Central Asia, Russia, and Europe. In his book The Legendary Biographies of Tamerlane, historian Ron Sela has argued that they were based on ancient manuscripts but serve as a manifest against the corruption of rulers and officials, a call to respect Islamic traditions, and an attempt to situate Central Asia within a greater geopolitical and religious sphere.   The tales are full of adventures and mysterious happenings and prophecies. According to those tales, Timur raised in the city of Bukhara, where he met and married his first wife Aljai Turkanaga. She died about 1370, after which he married several of the daughters of Amir Husayn Qara’unas, a rival leader, including Saray Mulk.  Timur eventually collected dozens of women as wives and concubines as he conquered their fathers or erstwhile husbands lands. Disputed Causes of Timurs Lameness The European versions of Timurs name—Tamerlane or Tamberlane—are based on the Turkic nickname Timur-i-leng, meaning Timur the Lame.  Timurs body was exhumed by a Russian team led by archaeologist Mikhail Gerasimov in 1941, and they found evidence of two healed wounds on Timurs right leg. His right hand was also missing two fingers. The anti-Timurid author Arabshah says that Timur was shot with an arrow while stealing sheep. More likely, he was wounded in 1363 or 1364 while fighting as a mercenary for Sistan (southeastern Persia) as stated by contemporary chroniclers Ruy Clavijo and Sharaf al-Din Ali Yazdi. Transoxianas Political Situation During Timurs youth, Transoxiana was riven by conflict between the local nomadic clans and the sedentary Chagatay Mongol khans who ruled them. The Chagatay had abandoned the mobile ways of Genghis Khan and their other ancestors  and taxed the people heavily in order to support their urban lifestyle. Naturally, this taxation angered their citizens. In 1347, a local named Kazgan seized power from the Chagatai ruler Borolday. Kazgan would rule until his assassination in 1358. After Kazgans death, various warlords and religious leaders vied for power. Tughluk Timur, a Mongol warlord, emerged victorious in 1360. Young Timur Gains and Loses Power Timurs uncle Hajji Beg led the Barlas at this time  but refused to submit to Tughluk Timur. The Hajji fled, and the new Mongol ruler decided to install the seemingly more pliable young Timur to rule in his stead. In fact, Timur was already plotting against the Mongols. He formed an alliance with the grandson of Kazgan, Amir Hussein, and married Husseins sister Aljai Turkanaga. The Mongols soon caught on; Timur and Hussein were dethroned and forced to turn to banditry in order to survive. In 1362, the legend says, Timurs following was reduced to two: Aljai and one other. They were even imprisoned in Persia for two months. Timurs Conquests Begin Timurs bravery and tactical skill made him a successful mercenary soldier in Persia, and he soon collected a large following. In 1364, Timur and Hussein banded together again and defeated Ilyas Khoja, the son of Tughluk Timur. By 1366, the two warlords controlled Transoxiana. Timurs first wife died in 1370, freeing him to attack his erstwhile ally Hussein. Hussein was besieged and killed at Balkh, and Timur declared himself the sovereign of the whole region. Timur was not directly descended from Genghis Khan on his fathers side, so he ruled as an amir  (from the Arabic word for prince), rather than as khan.  Over the next decade, Timur seized the rest of Central Asia as well. Timurs Empire Expands With Central Asia in hand, Timur invaded Russia in 1380. He helped the Mongol Khan Toktamysh retake control and also defeated the Lithuanians in battle. Timur captured Herat (now in Afghanistan) in 1383, the opening salvo against Persia. By 1385, all of Persia was his.   With invasions in 1391 and 1395, Timur fought against his former protege in Russia, Toktamysh. The Timurid army captured Moscow in 1395.  While Timur was busy in the north, Persia revolted. He responded by leveling entire cities  and using the citizens skulls to build grisly towers and pyramids. By 1396, Timur had also conquered Iraq, Azerbaijan, Armenia, Mesopotamia, and Georgia. Conquest of India, Syria, and Turkey Timurs army of 90,000 crossed the Indus River in September  1398 and set upon India. The country had fallen to pieces after the death of Sultan Firuz Shah Tughluq (r. 1351–1388) of the Delhi Sultanate, and by this time Bengal, Kashmir, and the Deccan each had separate rulers. The Turkic/Mongol invaders left carnage along their path; Delhis army was destroyed in December and the city was ruined. Timur seized tons of treasure and 90 war elephants  and took them back to Samarkand. Timur looked west in 1399, retaking Azerbaijan and conquering Syria. Baghdad was destroyed in 1401 and 20,000 of its people were slaughtered. In July 1402, Timur captured early Ottoman Turkey and received the submission of Egypt. Final Campaign and Death The rulers of Europe were glad that the Ottoman Turk sultan Bayazid had been defeated, but they trembled at the idea that Tamerlane was at their doorstep. The rulers of Spain, France, and other powers sent congratulatory embassies to Timur, hoping to stave off an attack. Timur had bigger goals, though. He decided in 1404 that he would conquer Ming China. (The ethnic-Han Ming Dynasty had overthrown his cousins, the Yuan, in 1368.) Unfortunately for him, however, the Timurid army set out in December during an unusually cold winter. Men and horses died of exposure, and the 68-year-old Timur fell ill. He died on February 17, 1405 at Otrar, in Kazakhstan. Legacy Timur started life as the son of a minor chieftain, much like his putative ancestor Genghis Khan. Through sheer intelligence, military skill, and force of personality, Timur was able to conquer an empire stretching from Russia to India and from the Mediterranean Sea to Mongolia. Unlike Genghis Khan, however, Timur conquered not to open trade routes and protect his flanks, but to loot and pillage. The Timurid Empire did not long survive its founder  because he rarely bothered to put any governmental structure in place after he destroyed the existing order. While Timur professed to be a good Muslim, he obviously felt no compunction about destroying the jewel-cities of Islam and slaughtering their inhabitants. Damascus, Khiva, Baghdad...these ancient capitals of Islamic learning never really recovered from Timurs attentions. His intent seems to have been to make his capital at Samarkand the first city in the Islamic world. Contemporary sources say that Timurs forces killed about 19 million people during their conquests. That number is probably exaggerated, but Timur does seem to have enjoyed massacre for its own sake. Timurs Descendants Despite a death-bed warning from the conqueror, his dozens of sons and grandsons immediately began to fight over the throne when he passed away. The most successful Timurid ruler, Timurs grandson Ulegh Beg (1393–1449, ruled 1447–1449), gained fame as an astronomer and scholar. Ulegh was not a good administrator, however, and was murdered by his own son in 1449. Timurs line had better luck in India, where his great-great-grandson Babur founded the Mughal Dynasty in 1526. The Mughals ruled until 1857 when the British expelled them. (Shah Jahan, the builder of the Taj Mahal, is thus also a descendant of Timur.) Timurs Reputation Timur was lionized in the west for his defeat of the Ottoman Turks. Christopher Marlowes Tamburlaine the Great and Edgar Allen Poes Tamerlane are good examples. Not surprisingly, the people of Turkey, Iran, and the Middle East remember him rather less favorably. In post-Soviet Uzbekistan, Timur has been made into a national folk hero. The people of Uzbek cities like Khiva, however, are skeptical; they remember that he razed their city and killed nearly every inhabitant. Sources Gonzà ¡lez de Clavijo, Ruy. Narrative of the Embassy of Ruy Gonzalez De Clavijo to the Court of Timour, at Samarcand, A.D. 1403–1406. Trans. Markham, Clements R. London: The Hakluyt Society, 1859.Marozzi, Justin. Tamerlane: Sword of Islam, Conqueror of the World. New York: HarperCollins, 2006.Sela, Ron. The Legendary Biographies of Tamerlane: Islam and Heroic Apocrypha in Central Asia. Trans. Markham, Clements R.  Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2011.  Saunders, J. J. History of the Mongol Conquests. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1971.

Monday, December 30, 2019

The Civil War Of Slavery - 1699 Words

In the 1800s the Institution of Slavery became very dominant in the United States, but mainly in the South. Due to the climate and their type of economy, their agriculture productions required a great amount of labor that was performed by the slaves. In the south, â€Å"slavery was key to the way of life†1 the majority of the south relied on the slaves to do all of the hard work for them and maximize the profit of their owners. The northern states however had a different type of economy and did not require the work of slaves to maintain their style of living. Their climate as well did not allow them to have an agricultural based economy, the soil in the north was not fertile and the growing season was not long enough for them to have a dominant†¦show more content†¦Through the religious awakening the southerners were supportive of the majority of the changes the evangelical leaders proposed however they did not follow the personal convergence. The northerners did cont inue with this convergence and were able to recognize the wrongs of the south. This convergence had a great impact on women who sought to create a perfect society. In order to do this they became active in reform movements known as Antebellum Reforms which occurred before the civil war. â€Å"The Antebellum movements focused on helping people who couldn’t help themselves like the African American slaves in the south.†1 These movements began in the north and used two reform strategies. The reform strategies â€Å"focused on improving individual behaviors which was known as moral suasion, as well as using political action which focused on outlawing the behabiors.†1 This was the beginning of the tension between the north and the south because the south were unwilling to give up their style of living which included the ownership of slaves. As slavery continued to dominant the south and evolve over the years, the slaves themselves began to attack the slavery system t hey were a part of against their own will. Southerners as well had concerns of slave revolts that could possibly occur at any given moment. This

Saturday, December 21, 2019

The Origin Of Language Essay - 1541 Words

There has been considerable historical discourse over the nature of language. Most contend that thought and language are two interrelated criteria. Just how these criteria relate to the controversy over whether animals have language capabilities and even more specifically to the Sapir-Whorf human language thought debate, however, is not always clear. From a human context we know that language is a skill which allows us to communicate our thoughts to others and in so doing to attain desired quot;biological, cognitive, and social/behavioral feedbackquot; (McDonnell, 1977). The question as to whether language is a skill that human beings are born with or whether it is a skill that is acquired is a complex one and not one in which all†¦show more content†¦They believe that the quot;baby talkquot; uttered by infants is simply a precursor to actual language and that both quot;baby talkquot; and the ability to translate ones thoughts into language is one which is part of the human genetic blueprint (McConnell, 1977). If the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis were accurate, therefore, human conceptualization would be limited to the words which we were born understanding. We know that this is not the case. We can demonstrate this inaccuracy with a brief look at the animal language controversy which rages on in many circles. While it is agreed in most cases that humans have the genetic blueprint for language, it is not always agreed that animals have this same blueprint. Most researchers recognize that human infants can distinguish between various sounds in human speech at a very early age. According to psychologist Patricia Kuhl at the University of Washington, for example, infants can distinguish between each of the 150 universal components of human speech (Grunwald, Goldberg, and Be; 1993). It could be contended that, while they may not have the same range of sound recognition, young animals also associate various sounds emitted by their species as having particular associations. One has to only observe the interactions between a family pet and their offspring to be cognizant of this fact. Indeed, animals quickly learn to recognize the meaning of various humanShow MoreRelatedVernacular Language Origins995 Words   |  4 PagesOrigins of the Vernacular Language Bradlee Melton American InterContinental University Abstract Until the sixteenth century Latin was known as the official language during the Middle Ages. 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Friday, December 13, 2019

Perfume Market in China Free Essays

Strategy for UNIQLO in India Class: Global Strategy – Optimizing your Global Footprint Professor: Mark Roeske Students: Hidenobu Hayakawa Nagasaka Sohta Nguyen Thanh Thi Phuong Waseda Summer Intensive , August 2012 Final Report Final Report [STRATEGY FOR UNIQLO IN INDIA CONTENTS Executive Summary PART I/ UNIQLO and Apparel Industry – Overview of UNIQLO business – Apparel Industry: Value Chain Key Success Factors PART II/ Environmental Analysis – PEST analysis for India – 5 Forces analysis for Apparel industry in India – SWOT analysis for UNIQLO’s entering into India PART III/ Strategy Formation – Entry Strategy: Entry Mode – Expansion Strategy: 3 Phases – Implementation Plan: 4P, AAA Conclusion Reference Appendix 2 Final Report [STRATEGY FOR UNIQLO IN INDIA EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Japan is famous for innovation and high-tech manufacturing industries but not for fashion. However, this fact should be reconsidered since the brand UNIQLO, a true Japanese fashion brand, now can be found in the biggest cities of the world from world-class shopping malls like Ginza (Tokyo), Fifth Avenue (New York) to the streets of Shanghai and Malaysia. UNIQLO is the main brand of Fast Retailing Co. We will write a custom essay sample on Perfume Market in China or any similar topic only for you Order Now , Ltd (see Appendix 1 for Corporate Profile), the largest producer in apparel retailing industry in Japan and ranks the fourth in the world (after ZARA, HM and GAP). Mr. Tadashi Yanai, the founder a nd current CEO of Fast Retailing (FR) used to be the richest man in Japan. In this report, we develop the strategy to bring UNIQLO to the world second largest population, India. The reasons why we choose this plan can be explained briefly as following. Fast Retailing aims at becoming the number one apparel retailer in the world by 2020. In order to achieve this ambitious vision, they need to boost up sales from other markets other than depending only on the already-saturated Japanese market. First venturing into international markets in 2001, UNIQLO now has worldwide operations, including in the U. K. , China, Hong Kong, South Korea, the United States, France, Singapore, Russia, Taiwan and Malaysia. There are very few big economies in the world that UNIQLO has not touched, which includes India. The reason for choosing India as the next destination of UNIQLO brand is mainly because of the attraction of India itself with a big population and rising GDP growth as well as an warm-welcome legal environment for foreign investment. About the structure of this report, we divide in three different parts. The first one will give an overview of UNIQLO brand, its position versa other world-top apparel brands. This part also explains the value chain of apparel industry focusing on SPA model and its relevant key success factors. The second part provides an in-depth but compact environmental analysis of India n general and its apparel industry. Based on the country and industry analysis, a summary of external and internal factors affectin g the introduction of UNIQLO brand into India is shown in the SWOT analysis. The last but most important 3 Final Report [STRATEGY FOR UNIQLO IN INDIA part of the report focuses on forming the entry strategy as well as expansion strategy for UNIQLO in Ind ian market. The main data source for this report is the FR’s latest annual report for fiscal year ended August 31, 2011 as well as information available on reliable websites, which are shown in the Reference. PART I/ UNIQLO and Japanese Apparel Industry UNIQLO of Fast Retailing â€Å"Changing the World with Truly Great Clothing† is the motto of Fast Retailing which show s the corporation’s spirit, vision and strategy. The specialty retailer UNIQLO, the Group’s mainstay operation, has enjoyed strong growth by offering high-quality casual wear at reasonable prices based on its SPA (Specialty store retailer of Private label Apparel) business model, which spans product design, manufacture, distribution and retail. UNIQLO’s products range from denim, cashmere, knitwear underwear to men women jeans, trousers, shorts, shirts and t-shirts. The first UNIQLO store opened in 1984 and as mentioned above, UNIQLO now has operations in U. K. , China, Hong Kong, South Korea, the United States, France, Singapore, Russia, Taiwan and Malaysia. In 2011, th ey opened global flagship stores in Taipei, Seoul and on New York’s prestigious Fifth Avenue, as part of plans to grow business worldwide. At the end of fiscal 2011, they had 843 stores in Japan and 181 stores in other markets. Their breakthrough products include HEAT-TECH inner wear line, Ultra Light Down jackets and Cool biz line. In Japan, UNIQLO is the nation’s largest apparel retailer, with a 5. % 1 share of the 10. 7 trillion yen Japanese apparel market, and 843 stores nationwide at the end of fiscal 20 11. In fiscal 2011, sales increased 28. 7% year on year to 93. 7 billion yen and operating profit grew 40. 6% to 8. 9 billion yen. While this is still only a small amount compared to UNIQLO Japan’s sales of 600. 1 billion yen, UNIQLO internationalâ€⠄¢s operations in Asia are providing highly profitable. The total number of UNIQLO International stores stood at 181 at the end of August 2011. They plan to add another 107 to boost the total to 288 stores by the end of August 2012. Fast Retailing’s Annual Report 2011 4 Final Report [STRATEGY FOR UNIQLO IN INDIA The chart below envisions the breakdown of UNIQLO sales in the future: (Source: Annual report yearend 2011, Fast Retailing Co. , Ltd) Apparel Industry The following chart shows the current ranking of major global SPAs in the apparel world (Source: Annual report yearend 2011, Fast Retailing Co. , Ltd) SPA business model incorporates the entire clothes-making process from procurement of materials, product planning, development and manufacture through distribution and retail to inventory management. To ensure the development of products of exceptional quality, UNIQLO has refined its SPA business model to control the entire business process (see UNIQLO business model in Appendix 2). UNIQLO successfully differentiates itself from other companies by developing unique products and minimize store operation cost. This model is described in the flow of supply and key success factors are identified as below: ?1) Product Planning Key Success Factor: Product development based on customer feedback. Market-Out is a one of key driver for UNIQULO to attract consumer where their preference are diversified. Final Report [STRATEGY FOR UNIQLO IN INDIA ?2) Raw material Purchase Key Success Factor: Material procurement from around the world. The UNIQLO Material Development Team is able to procure high-quality materials at low costs through direct negotiations with and bulk purchases from material manufacturers globally. ?3) Production Key Success Factor: a) Expert technical guidance at factories em phasizes quality in order to produce millions of products of standardized quality. b) Flexible to produce in small unit(lot) ? 4) Sales Marketing Key Success Factor: Flagship Stores Boosts the Brand UNIQLO is seeking to build its brand through its network of global flagship stores. Global flagship stores serve as hubs to get out the UNIQLO message, and concept of high-quality basics, while showcasing what sets UNIQLO apart from competitors such as HM, Zara or Gap. PART II/ Environmental Analysis 1/ PEST analysis for India India, officially the Republic of India, is a country in South Asia. Its population is around 1. 2 billion, second largest after China. In term of the ease of doing business, India ranks 132nd, even worse than Pakistan (105th). ? Political factor: About its political system, India is the world’s most populous democracy with a parliamentary republic with a multi-party system. However, India ranks 95th over 185 countries in term of corruption rate and the corporation tax is really high at 40%. The law was changed in 2011 and it allows foreign companies to have wholly own subsidiary. Although tax and corruption are negative points, there are lots of positive points as the current Prime Minister, Manmohan Singh, promised to bring more transparency in work of public servant and create no barriers to investment in India ? Potential impact to UNIQLO: It is an ideal timing for UQNILO to go to India now because from 24th November 2011, Indian government allowed a foreign company to have its wholly-own subsidiary of retailer. However, it needs to pay attention to potential legal risks from Indian inflexible Labor Law, for 6 Final Report [STRATEGY FOR UNIQLO IN INDIA example, practically impossible to fire someone in India, requiring payment of annual bonuses even if the company wasn’t profitable, high compensation for workers that suffer injury/death on site of employment and trend of getting stringent on working condition and minimum wage law enforcement. Economic factor: India is a rapidly rising power. Its GDP growth rate is impressively high (2009: 8. 24%, 2010: 9. 55%, 2011: 6. 86%). In term of nominal GDP, it ranks 11th in the world. Nevertheless, GDP per capita is very low compared to the other BRIC countries ($1,389, 140th ranking). India contains the largest concentration of people living below the World Bank’s international poverty line of US$1. 25 per day. Inflation rate is very high of 11. 99% in 2010 and 8. 63% in 2011. As for apparel industry, the total market capitalization is expected to increase from US$32. billion in 2009 to US$57 billion in 2015. ?Potential impact to UNIQLO: consumer’s demand is increasing more and more in the future. Therefore, Indian apparel market creates a huge chance for UNIQLO. However, India is too big to deal with as a one country, so that cities are important to define business strategy. The first targeted destination should be Mumbai, which is the biggest city in population (12. 5 mil people) and its density (20,694/km2) is four times higher than Tokyo (5,541/km2). It is absolutely a very promising business because there is no tariff to clothing between Japan and India from 2010. Social factors: Population growth rate is 1. 4% per year and India is expected to reach 1. 4 billion in 2030. The literacy rate is about 74 . 04% (2011) and there are more than 90 million English speakers. This population is divided in the following age structure: 0-14 years: 31. 8%, 15-64 years: 63. 1% and 65 years and above: 5. 1%. Their lands are fertile and very good for agriculture. The weather is various in locations and there are summer and winter and raining seasons. ?Potential impact to UNIQLO: UNIQLO should make unique comfortable products suitable for various climates. Although India provides cheap labor cost, the deviation in salary base in India is very large, 2-3 times difference by education and 20-30 times difference for professionals. Another important factor for consideration is related to the labor union in India. There are about 8,000 Labor Unions and they are very active. 7 Final Report ? [STRATEGY FOR UNIQLO IN INDIA Technology factors: India is well-known as the land of IT outsourcing, so the infrastructure as well as transport and communication should be good. Nevertheless, there are more and more blackouts recently. As for textile, India is a big textile producer as being the largest producer of Jute, Cotton, Silk, Cellulosic and Synthetic fiber/Yarn. ?Potential impact to UNIQLO: in the long run, UNIQLO should make its own products in India to take the advantage of cheap raw material and low-paid labor sources. However, they now need to build up their distribution from the scratch. 2/ 5 Forces analysis for apparel industry of India In general, the PEST analysis shows favorable results to the business plan of introducing UNIQLO brand in India. In order to form the entry mode as well as competition strategy for UNIQLO, an in-depth understanding of current apparel industry of India is needed. The 5 forces model of Porter is applied to identify involving forces of this industry and details are shown below: ? Threat of new entrants: High Barrier to new entrant into apparel industry is low because there are no restrictions and the current Indian government shows warm welcome to foreign investment. On the other hand, â€Å"Functional Fiber’’ could lose its uniqueness and distinctiveness by products from other apparel companies. For example, Private brand from Chemical companies (like Du Pont Company) could be our rival in this category. ? Bargaining power of suppliers: Low As the main raw materials are â€Å"Cotton and Functional fiber’’ and cotton is commodity, UNIQLO can find the cotton source from various suppliers in and outside the country. More importantly, UNIQLO has a strong sourcing of functional fiber from Toray, its strategic partner. They have had a good corpo ration on global base under a long-term contract. Finally, access to distribution channels is not limited and retailers provide shelf-space when they receive listing fees here in India. Bargaining power of buyer: Medium There is no switching cost for buyers. Most of the POS (Point of sales) are PAPAMAMA shop but they are small in size and not able to exercise buying power. However, due to the regulation change in 2010 8 Final Report [STRATEGY FOR UNIQLO IN INDIA with regard to the field of retailer, quantity of mass–r etailers has been increasing at urban area, making buyer bargaining power stronger. Consumer spending on fashion products has grown at 7. 1% annually from 2002 through 2010. There is a rising affluence which helps to increase brand awareness among Indian consumers. Indian is among the most brand conscious countries in the world (according to the â€Å"Nielsen Global Luxury Brands Study†). Indian often spend around 100$ on an average for apparel. To them, the most important factor is the look and feel of the product and price is also another important factor. Therefore, UNIQLO should market itself as the highly functional and innovative clothing brand from Japan to be sold at reasonable price. ? Threat of substitute products of service: High The substitutes are various from price, quality to brand as well as ease of access to customers. Local apparel manufacturers have consolidated in group and they are strong at low-cost operation. Still people have preference in local style outfit (their traditional custom: sari). ? Rivalry of competition: High India is considered an attractive market for luxury brands, about 50 premium and luxury brands, including Zara, GAP, Tommy Hilfiger, Guess, Benetton, Levi’s etc, have opened stores in India in recent years. Direct competitors of SPAs like UNIQLO (GAP and Zara) have been doing business in India and they have solid portions of market share in the non-functional category. Rivalry among existing companies is fierce. Regarding strengths and weaknesses of current competitors, Zara’s strength lies in its ability to quickly bring the latest designs to its stores while Levi’s and Benetton strengths are in their supply chains as they have been in India for more than 10 years. Shopper’s stop and Provogue are local players and they are available in more locations of customer attraction. However, current competitors also have weaknesses like: due to fewer seasonal variations, driving new fashions every season hasn’t been easy for them. Except Benetton, most of other brands do not offer traditional (embroidery) and colorful stuff, which Indians prefer more. Some of the competitors do not have good distribution infrastructure. In brief, the market in India is still in its early ages and is growing at a high rate. A lot of other premium brands are planning to open their stores in India soon. Market size is big especially in its tier-1 three most populous cities namely Mumbai, New Delhi and Bangalore (more than 30 million people in total). 9 Final Report [STRATEGY FOR UNIQLO IN INDIA UNIQLO targets customers of all ages and genders, but in its first bricks, it should focus on customer aging from 15-64 and who is more brand conscious. The targeted customers should earn more than $100 dollars per month to afford UNIQLO products. 3/ SWOT analysis for UNIQLO in India The overview of UNIQLO business and the results of PEST and 5 forces analysis help us recognize the external factors and internal factors affecting to the investment decision and strategy formation of UNIQLO in India. All important factors are summarized in the SWOT frameworks below: Strengths Weakness – High quality, functional products for wide range of customer and to be sold at – UNIQLO originally had image of cheap clothes for everybody with basic designs Japanese culture is still the core value of FR reasonable price – Being famous for innovative products back up by Japan technology innovation while Indian working culture is very much different. – Having strategic cooperation with suppliers (TORAY) – Shortage of global human resources due to the language barriers. – Having strong global footprint – L ack of well-established distribution network – Good SCM with SPA model – The financial status is very healthy Opportunities Threats – Increasing demand of functional products with high-tech and innovative materials in government welcomes oreign investment (apparel) – High Yen – Increase of purchasing power and brand consciousness in India price for market share. – Instability of consumption tax and regulations the second populous world. – Indian – Strong competition which may cause a war of – Different wear behavior of targeted customers and poor access to shopping centers – The global economic downturn and Indian slow GDP growth – Social matters (labor union, war with Afghan, security risk, market exit) – High rental at shopping mall 10 Final Report [STRATEGY FOR UNIQLO IN INDIA PART III/ Strategy Formation 1/ Strategy Based on environmental analysis as well as strengths and weaknesses of UNIQLO, following is the suggested strategies for UNIQLO upon entering into India. Vision: Becoming the number one lifestyle apparel SPA in India in next 10 years. ? Value Positioning: highly functional clothes selling at middle to high price ? Competitive strategy: Differentiation by innovative product and aiming to be creator of new clothe types (ex: HEAT-TECH or Ultra Light Down Jacket lines) ? Targeted segmentation: Customer aging from 15 to 64 years old of both genders, belonging to the social classes having medium and high-income, living in urban area. Entry mode: first entering as a wholly-own subsidiary of Fast Retailing Co. , Ltd and later expand the store networks through alliance with strategic retailers or franchising/licensing models. UNIQLO had very successful business results with the wholly-own branch model in other countries like China, US and EU, which should be an advantage for them in India. ? Expansion Strategy: Phase-based model Phase 1 (Year 1 – Year 2) Market penetration Brand and Network building Target: Having piloted 5 big-sized stores in the five most condensed shopping malls of Mumbai (5 stores) Phase 2 (Year 3- Year 5) Brand building Regional expansion Target: Having 10 stores in malls of 4 big cities: Mumbai, Delhi, new Delhi and Bangalore (40 stores) Phase 3 (Year 6 ~ Year 10) Brand strengthening National expansion Target: Building the first flagship store in Mumbai and having in total 100 stores nation-wide (1 flagship and 100 stores) 2/ Implementation plan: To realize the above strategy, 4P marketing framework has been applied and details are shown in the table below: 11 Final Report [STRATEGY FOR UNIQLO IN INDIA Products Place – Phase 1: emphasize functional inner wear – Phase 1: start from big-sized stores in top-tier ine (heat-up and cool-biz types). This makes shopping malls in Mumbai and corporate with Indian more comfortable when combining domestic retailers who are easy to be controlled UNIQLO innerwear with their traditional by UNIQLO. sari. – Phase 2: develop various stores in big and – Phase 2: offer diverse casual apparel small shopping malls in top 4 bi ggest cities products of vivid designs for men and including Mumbai, Delhi, New Delhi, and women for any occasions. (T-shirt, sleeveless Bangalore. dress, jackets, jeans, etc ) – Phase 3: design styles and develop materials for Indian market to turn UNIQLO as the Phase 3: Open one world-class flagship store in Mumbai and increase the store quantity through franchising or licensing nation-wide. leading lifestyle clothes for domestic people. Price Promotion – Pricing for UNIQLO in India will be based – The store design, furniture, fixtures and music competitors’ pricing in India as well as its are all carefully planned and coordinated to global price strategy. create a shopping experience that reflects – Considering UNIQLO’s unique differentiated products and the income of target customers, the price will range from medium to high. global UNIQLO’s brand concept. Marketing strategy will emphasize on the senses to inspire the aspiration l ifestyles as – The possibility of lowering price of some Unique Clothing via strong investment in products is high because GPD per capita of advertising on TVs, journalism and on-line India is still very low compared to other websites. Discounts at weekends and special BRICs. ceremonies will be applied to boost the sales. Moreover, India is a totally different market compared to its home Japan in term of culture, religion and politics. Therefore, in order to win in this market, UNIQLO must follow the triple A strategy for its global operation and planning. Adaptation: India is very big and varies in climate, tribes, religion and tradition. Therefore, UNIQLO has to provide diverse products adapting to wear behavior of localities . For example, in Mumbai, where UNIQLO aims to open first stores, is very hot so UNIQLO’s high -tech dry T-shirt would be ideal. At the very end, UNIQLO should provide the specific design and fabric exclusively for India (ex: embroidery products with vivid color). By adapting the firm’s products and services to the local 12 Final Report [STRATEGY FOR UNIQLO IN INDIA context, it can boost revenues and market share. ? Aggregation: India’s population is 10 times than Japan and this market is getting bigger and bigger. Therefore, if UNIQLO makes a big success in Indian market, they would get the benefits of economy of scale by turning India into regional or even global operation of UNIQLO. Although they now have a production factory in Sri Lanka, India is a very much bigger market connecting to the Asian sub continent. In the future, all development, production and marketing can be grouped in India as the regional operations headquarter. ? Arbitrage: India has a big apparel cluster and cheap labor force. On the other hand, now in China, where 80% productions of UNIQLO products are there, labor wage is increasing rapidly. If UNIQLO decided to go to India, they can move factories from China to India to reduce to cost burden as well as avoid the threat of intense political conflict between China and Japan. CONCLUSION UNIQLO aims to create apparel MADE FOR ALL, offering the elements of style in clothes that suit diverse values of customers. Therefore, although India is diverse in term of culture and shopping behavior, in the one-world one-market era, UNIQLO has a big chance. According to us, short-term goal for UNIQLO is to set up profitable business model and increase brand awareness. Long-term goal is to be a leading lifestyle brand in India. Starting from high-profile shopping centers, then flagship stores but eventually UNIQLO would become popular functional casual clothing that its shops can be found in every cities of India. As for organization and operation, to meet up with the huge demand of labor force in the future, we suggest UNIQLO to recruit and train university graduates in India in the same way as in Japan (either in India or Japan). The fresh approach to staff training will facilitate aggressive new stores openings in India later. Finally, regarding the corporate culture, in order to avoid cultural conflicts as well as to preserve UNIQLO’s Japanese Core Values amid Globalization, (UNIQLO is a company born and bred in Japan), they should balance and integrate its Japanese DNA and Indian DNA to feature itself as a new type of Japanese-originated global corporation. 13 Final Report [STRATEGY FOR UNIQLO IN INDIA REFERENCE 1/ Note on Globalization and Strategy http://www. iese. edu/en/files/AR-Apuntes9. pdf 2/ Fast Retailing Latest Annual Report 2011 http://www. astretailing. com/eng/ir/library/annual. html 3/ Other websites: http://www. jetro. go. jp/world/asia/in/biznews/4ed43b5b0cb20 http://www. jetro. go. jp/world/asia/in/invest_04/ http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Corruption_Perceptions_Index http://ja. wikipedia. org/wiki/%E3%82%A4%E3%83%B3%E3%83%89 http://www. google. co. jp/publicdata/explore? ds=d5bncpp jof8f9_=ny_gdp_mktp_kd_zg m=country:IND=ja=ja=%E3%82%A4%E3%83%B3%E3%83%89gdp%E6%88%90%E9%95 %B7%E7%8E%87) http://ja. wikipedia. org/wiki/%E3%82%A4%E3%83%B3%E3%83%89) http://www. google. co. jp/url? sa=t=j==s=web=1=0CGAQFjAA =http%3A%2F%2Fcsi. ckinsey. com%2F~%2Fmedia%2FExtranets%2FConsumer%2520Shopper%252 0Insights%2FReports%2FIndias_fast_growing_apparel_market. ashx=LtM0UN7mGIb4mAWmwoG YCQ=AFQjCNE5VELIQ-B385iwXw_VnAjkCscOCw=rXzMNQp0szM7wLXWKzPqXQ http://ja. wikipedia. org/wiki/%E3%82%A4%E3%83%B3%E3%83%89 http://ecodb. net/country/IN/imf_inflation. html#pcpipch http://www. meti. go. jp/policy/trade_policy/epa/country/pdf/india0408. pdf http://www. google. co. jp/url? sa=t=j==s=web=1=0CGAQFjAA =http%3A%2F%2Fcsi. mckinsey. com%2F~%2Fmedia%2FExtranets%2FConsumer%2520Shopper%252 0Insights%2FReports%2FIndias_fast_growing_apparel_market. shx=LtM0UN7mGIb4mAWmwoG YCQ=AFQjCNE5VELIQ-B385iwXw_VnAjkCscOCw=rXzMNQp0szM7wLXWKzPqXQ http://www. indexmundi. com/india/age_structure. ht 14 Final Report [STRATEGY FOR UNIQLO IN INDIA APPENDIX Appendix 1: Fast Retailing Corporation Profile Index Figure Country Japan Found year 1963 Sales( billion) 820. 35(2011. 8) Net profit( billion) 54. 35 Total assets( billion) 533. 78 ROE(%) 18. 1 Market value (() 14,742 Stores 2088 (10 countries) Employees (full-time) 14,612 Region sales rate 73(Japan):27(Oversea) (Source: Annual report yearend 2011, Fast Retailing Co. , Ltd) 15 How to cite Perfume Market in China, Essay examples

Thursday, December 5, 2019

Honor Definition and Lists Public Regard free essay sample

People generally do not seem to behave very well toward each other any more. Honor determines the hierarchy of an individual while revealing his loyalty and true intentions. Reward comes for those at the top whose honor does not diminish, while a false or fleeting honor of a lesser mortal causes destruction. Exploring and discussing how to act honorably toward each other is a place to start. The greatest way to live with honor in this world is to be what we pretend to be. How can you be a person of integrity? First, figure out what integrity (honor) is.My mother used to say to treat others the way you wanted to be treated. Does anyone do that these days? Well, I know that I dont want to be cut off in traffic, or yelled at, or bumped into rudely at the grocery store, or left picking up garbage all over my yard from the street. We will write a custom essay sample on Honor: Definition and Lists Public Regard or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page So I could try not to do those things to other people. I wont cut off others in traffic, or yell, or act rude at the grocery store, or throw garbage in the street. Thats Just a place to start. Treat others the way you want to be treated. Honor isnt about making the right choices.Its about dealing with the consequences. You have a hard decision to make. You took an action at work that really messed things up. No one knows you did it, and you do feel terrible about it. Do you tell anyone? Well, is anyone else going to be blamed or harmed because of what you did? If so, shouldnt you fess up? Otherwise someone else will take the blame for your action. Would you like that to happen to you? To be blamed for something someone else messed up? An honorable person faces their errors straight on, knowing that there are consequences for every action.My mother used to say, if you spilled the milk, you clean It up. In a very simple way, she was teaching me how to deal with my own responsibilities, actions and consequences. Honor: Definition and Lists Public Regard By legion respect mingled with love, devotion. There is a priceless respect that everyone in the world possesses, and that is the. Respect of a person? s honor. A person? s honor is something that can not be bought, sold,. Or traded it? s something that must be gained by the respect of your peers. An example of. How honor is seen in everyday fife in through a persons word.The standard dictionary definition of honor first lists justice and responsibility appearing much further down the list. This is reflected in the way the modern world treats the issue of honor. In ancient times, honor was the manner of being that we now describe as having integrity. In plain language, an wanted to be treated. Does anyone do that these days? Well, I know that I dont want used to say, if you spilled the milk, you clean it up. In a very simple way, she was teaching me how to deal with my own responsibilities, actions and consequences.